It seems the two go hand in hand in today’s society. My opinion on the distraction that is Social Media.
After researching several sources on the effects of extensive video game use I have come to the conclusion that excessive video game use isn’t necessarily detrimental to the mental health or behaviours to the subject. Researches have found that most addicted gamers already have pre-existing disorders, e.g. social anxiety, depression, etc, and persons with these disorders resort to video games as a means of distraction. It isn’t until the excessive use of video games turns into a pathological addiction that there is any major negative impact on the subjects health and behavioural patterns.
A list of research notes:
- ‘Players reported feeling best when the games produces positive experiences and challenges that connected to what they know in the real world’
- ‘Website shows the psychological affects of video game consumption, also the reason some people find it addicting. largely due to its capacity to cause a feeling of place within the online community. It gives people a presence.’
- Case studies also suggest that excessive play can reflect poor time management, poor coping, and/or attempted distraction from family issues
- Although the extensive use of video games doesn’t cause depression, obsessive-compulsivity, anxiety, etc, these symptoms may be the cause for video game addiction.
- This is the definition of Young’s Diagnostic Questionaire. It measures whether an internet/game user is pathologically addicted to gameplay/internet use.
- Internet addiction omits chasing, engaging in illegal acts to get money to play, and requiring financial bailout, but includes preoccupation with Internet use, tolerance, withdrawal, unsuccessful attempts to control or stop use, use to escape from problems, lying about use, and use interfering respectively with a significant relationship or a job, educational or career opportunity. Scores of five or more symptoms present in the past six months indicate pathological use.
- Overall, 33% and 23% of children respectively reported skipping household chores or homework to play, 20% doing poorly on schoolwork or a test because of play, and 25% playing to escape problems.
- Grűsser et al. (2007) also recruited 7,069 players (94% male, mean age 21) from an online gaming magazine and found that 11.9% scored as pathological gamers. These players tended to report the most daily play and were especially likely to report withdrawal and craving.
- Video games cause the same feelings that a withdrawal from other addictions, i.e. gambling has
- Charlton surveyed 404 English undergraduates about their experience with computers, including computer apathy-engagement and computer anxiety-comfort (Charlton and Birkett 1995), as well as items meant to tap behavioral addiction: e.g., cognitive preoccupation with computers, euphoria while playing, tolerance, behavioral salience, feelings of withdrawal when not playing, relapse, and conflict between computer use and other activities.
- The behavioural addictions – very important to the impact video games have on the health of young people.
- Definition of Video Game Addiction: Basing their definition of
video game addiction on the DSM’s definition of gambling addiction, they state that video game
addiction is a situation in which a person takes on a pattern of behavior similar to substance
abuse, wherein problems arise in the person’s life as a result of their intense desire to play video
- Further reasoning to the cause of video game addiction: A
video game addict, however, will often engage in video game usage not to pursue satisfaction,
but rather, to alleviate dissatisfactory feelings already present
- The results of game addiction: Recent findings suggest that video game addicts can engage in a similarly
psychotic path of behavior (Rosenfeld, 2001) to the point that they would jeopardize their own
- Reasons for Video Game Addiction: r. The reasons behind an individual turning towards video game addiction are myriad;
Deeble (2008) equates addiction to the video game World of Warcraft to a search for meaning
within an individual’s life. It is stated in the research that often individuals will turn to a
seemingly endless font of entertainment to compensate for what they interpret to be a void in
their personal lives
- Continued use of gaming – ‘As their
problems compound they will often spend increasing amounts of time in their virtual worlds,
dissociating from real life’s problems until they are simply too overwhelming to deal with
- What usually leads to extreme cases of game addiction: ‘As would be expected, this often leads to
problems with finances, health, and interpersonal relations that are so severe the individual may
abandon attempting to reconcile the issues. In fact, the reality of the situation is that the problems
caused by video game addiction are severe enough that a few misguided individuals have turned
to suicide, believing it to be the only option left available to them’
- The overuse of video games can cause behaviours such as increased short term aggressiveness, and overuse syndromes
- ‘ In June of 2007, the American Medical Association Council on Science and Public Health considered whether “videogame addiction” could be a disorder.’ proof that video game addiction can be a disorder.
- Some studies have found that exposure to video game violence may promote increased aggressive behaviors and decreased prosocial behaviors in social interactions. (Sheese& Graziano 2005; Vastag 2004)
- More psychological affects of video game. Most notably violence.
- Current theory is that these individuals achieve more control of their social relationships and more success in social relationships in the virtual reality realm than in real relationships
- Theory of why video game addiction occurs – most likely in MMORPG’s
- Symptoms of time usage and social dysfunction/disruption appear in patterns similar to that of other addictive disorders (Tejeiro et al. 2002).
- How the effects of video game addiction relate to other addictive disorders.
- prominent role in the lives of American youth has led to increased public scrutiny of the effects and potential harms of video game usage, including the potential of socially maladaptive behaviors such as increased short-term aggressiveness and overuse syndromes
- At least one fifth of respondents said that they had played to escape from problems (25% responded “yes”), that they had skipped their homework to play (23%), that video games had high cognitive salience for them (21%), and that they had done poorly on schoolwork or a test because of playing (20%)
- Tables 3 and 4 show how pathological gamers and nonpathological gamers compared on a number of dimensions. Pathological gamers had been playing for more years, played more frequently and for more time, knew more of the video-game rating symbols, received worse grades in school, were more likely to report having trouble paying attention in school, were more than twice as likely to have been diagnosed with an attention-deficit disorder, had more health problems that were likely to have been exacerbated by long hours of playing video games (e.g., hand pain and wrist pain), and were more likely to report having felt “addicted” to games and having friends they thought were “addicted” to games. Pathological gamers were also significantly more likely to have been involved in physical fights in the past year. Also, as predicted, pathological gamers were more likely to have a video-game system in their bedrooms.
- It is certainly possible that pathological gaming causes poor school performance, and so forth, but it is equally likely that children who have trouble at school seek to play games to experience feelings of mastery, or that attention problems cause both poor school performance and an attraction to games.
- Maybe gaming isn’t the cause of health problems, but the cause of gaming addiction are the already prevalent health problems – consider this. Could be a valid hypothesis.
‘Video Game Addiction,’ 2007, The Science Teacher, Vol. 74 no. 2, viewed 10 September 2012, via Griffith Library
Oggins J & Sammis J 2010, ‘Notions of Video Game Addiction and Their Relation to Self-Reported Addiction Among Players of World of Warcraft’ International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.
Langley A 2010, Correlates of Video Game Addiction, UMI Dissertation Publishing, United States.
P Chaudhri & R Karim 2012, ‘Behavioural addictions: an overview’ Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, voll 44.1, p5, viewed on 10 September 2012.
Douglas Gentile, 2009, ‘Pathological View-Game Use Among Youth Ages 8 to 18 A National Study’ Psychological Science, vol. 20 no.5. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02340.x
Today I chose the ‘Does the extensive use of computer/video games have an adverse impact on the health of young people. What are the most recent papers? Clarify what all sides of the argument claim and only then offer your reasoned opinion based on facts’ to be my topic for assessment.
Do I believe that the censorship of the internet is a practical way of reducing the illegal activities used through the internet, i.e. distribution of illegal items, trading of child pornography etc? I believe it would be. But it doesn’t mean it’s ethically correct to blame a whole country for the wrong doings of one group of people. The distribution of illegal material on the internet isn’t publicized in the open, so it doesn’t necessarily affect the major public. I believe a way to reduce this is ‘to continue to infiltrate and prosecute the groups of people responsible for creating and distributing such material’ (NoCleanFeed, 2011.)
The Government, led by Minister Conroy, have announced that they will introduce a ‘mandatory ISP – level filtering of Refused Classification (RC) – related content.’ (Stephen Conroy Media Release, 2009.) The plan will blacklist from 1,000 to 10,000 URL’s, these URL’S will be based on the current ‘ACMA’ blacklist, the ACMA being the Australian Communications and Media Authority which regulate the use of the internet, radio, telecommunications and broadcasting.
Although the censorship will not stop the major distribution of under-age pornography by only filtering URL’s. Peer to peer sharing will still be made available – which in turn is the greatest source for this illegal material. And the filtering will also not protect children from inappropiate content on the internet – the thousands of URL’s being blocked are still only a fraction of the websites that are harmful to children (NoCleanFeed, 2011.)
I believe sensible censorship of the internet is a good plan, but the current procedures that the Australian government are going to forgo aren’t really effective to the issues they’re trying to solve.
Electronic Frontiers Australia (online freedoms organization,) 2011, No Clean Feed, No Clean Feed, Australia.
Stephen Conroy, 2009, Measures to Improve Safety of the Internet for Families Media Release, Australian Government, Australia.
With political parties participating on the internet, having the public find ways to participate on their agendas via online activities from, e-petitions, responding to knowledgeable bloggers or sending politicians messages are made easy.
Signing an e-petition that supported my political beliefs was not difficult, a website addressing all of the queensland governments current e-petitions is available here – http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/work-of-assembly/petitions/e-petitions
I decided to sign the petition ‘Support National Disability Insurance Scheme. An overview of the petition is available from the following link.
A great way to gain attention from politicians is through major blogs, such as the one I found on news.com.au (http://blogs.news.com.au/index.php/news/comments/letter_to_copenhagen_from_the_people_of_australia_the_final_draft/)
Although it is outdated, it voices the opinions of a whole online community into one blog, all in an attempt to gain the attention of Mr Rudd’s policy’s on Australia’s participation in the reduction of carbon pollution i.e. the Kyoto Protocol. In my opinion, gaining the attention of many users from the popular website ‘news.com.au’ is a viable way to gain the attention from politicians.
Barack Obama recently did an interview on a popular internet forum named, ‘Reddit.’ His presence on this popular internet forum gained over 20,000 responses from anonymous posters. Here he voiced his opinion on Internet Freedom with the post, ‘Internet freedom is something I know you all care passionately about; I do too. We will fight hard to make sure that the internet remains the open forum for everybody – from those who are expressing an idea to those to want to start a business. And although there will be occasional disagreements on the details of various legislative proposals, I won’t stray from that principle – and it will be reflected in the platform.’ (Reddit, 2012) Obama currently supports the notion of freedom on the Internet.
Yet the Australian Government has established a campaign called ‘Clean Feed’ which will be used to censor the Internet for all Australians. ‘This plan will waste tens of millions of taxpayer dollars and will not make anyone safer,’ according to the anti-clean feed website ‘NoCleanFeed’ (NoCleanFeed, 2012.) The Government’s reasons to censor the internet for Australians are, to prevent people who are willfully making, trading, and accessing child sexual abuse material and to prevent children accessing inappropriate material. More information on the clean feed and my opinions of it can be found in my other blog post from this week.
Electronic Frontiers Australia (online freedoms organization,) No Clean Feed, No Clean Feed, Australia.
Peter Farquhar, 2009, Letter to Copenhagen From the People of Australia – Final Draft, news.com.au, Australia.
Queensland Parliament, 2012, Current E-Petitions, Queensland Parliament, Queensland.
This survery shows the participation, of whoever is taking the quiz, on social networking sites.
Danah. M. Boyd Nicole B Ellison, 2007, Social Network Sites: Defenition, History and Scholarships, Journal of Computer-Meditated Communication, Article 11.
Churn is the number of people, in this case a shareholder, that trade a company’s shares in a given amount of time. Measuring churn shows a company’s decline is customer satisfaction, popularity or losing customers from stronger competitors. Churn has been common in social networking media, and said by Paul Sheehan of the Sydney Morning Herald, ‘History confirms the expectation of accelerating commercial flux, of intense cycles of insurgency, dominance and decline, Yahoo! Was founded in 1995, Google in 1998, Facebook in 2004, Twitter in 2006,’ he explains earlier in his article the rise and decline of both Yahoo and Google. Eric Jackson, the founder of Ironfire Capital, then compares Facebook’s success with former social media giants, ‘(referring to Yahoo!… Actually it’s only 9 percent of peak value. Yahoo! Has seen the destruction of more than $US150 billion since peaking in 2000, I see that happening for Facebook’ and on Google ‘ Jackson then takes an educated prediction to the future of Facebook, ‘No matter how successful you are in one generation you don’t seem to be able to translate that into success in the next generation. Look at how Google struggled moving into social media, and I think Facebook is going to have the same kind of challenges moving into mobile.’ Facebook’s stock chart over the past year shows the decline in its stocks, it will most likely suffer the same fate of Yahoo!
Sheehan, Paul, 2012, Internet giants can earn with ease, it is churn they must fear, The Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney.
Cyberpunk was recognized in WIlliam Gibson’s novel, ‘Burning Chrome,’ and it wasn’t long until Hollywood recognized the genre and used the same themes for their feature films.
Marcus Janni Pivato, 2000, A Very Short History of Cyberpunk, Toronto.
‘Cyberspace’ is a term that defines a fictional cybernetic world in which users can emerge themselves. Author William Gibson in his 1982 novel, Burning Chrome, first created the term ‘Cyberspace,’ it was usually accompanied by the Cyberpunk genre. The Cyberspace concept has been adapted into Hollywood blockbusters such as, The Matrix, Blade Runner, Tron: Legacy etc. Although, Gibson describes Cyberspace as an ‘‘evocative and essentially meaningless buzzword that could serve as a cipher for all cybernetic musings.’ (Thill, 2009, March 19, 1948: William Gibson, Father of Cyberspace, Wired.) However, Cyberspace in other terms, describes the space in which electronic communication takes place.
So in a sense Cyberspace has developed into something real but less exaggerated then the version written by William Gibson. A simple way to define what Cyberspace is in the communications world is, the thin line in which a phone call takes place – not to be confused with the phone call itself, but the area in which the phone call is being sent to each phone. Bruce Steeling’s ‘The Hacker Crackdown’ explains the evolution of Cyberspace as ‘book ‘in the past twenty years, this electrical “space,” which was once thin and dark and one-dimensional—little more than a narrow speaking-tube, stretching from phone to phone—has flung itself open like a gigantic jack-in-the-box. Light has flooded upon it, the eerie light of the glowing computer screen.’ (Sterling, 1992,The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier,Bantam Books, United States.)Cyberspace has distanced itself from being an exclusive term to the sci-fi genre to being a common term used for the area of communication between man and technology.
Scott Thill, 2009, March 17, 1948: William Gibson, Father of Cyberspace, Wired.com, Location n/a. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2009/03/dayintech_0317
Sterling, 1992, The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier, Bantam Books, United States